Monday, October 31, 2011


Folk music has always played a great role in Baluchi traditions.Baluchi music and instruments belong to the same branch of Iranian music performed by many other Iranian peoples including Persians, Kurds, Lurs, Tajiks and others. Baluchi music has also influenced Sindhi and Seraiki folk music.The most commonly used instruments in Baluchi folk music are Tanbur, Dohol, Sorna, Ney, single or double flutes, Suroz (a Baluchi folk), Tar, Saz, and others.

SUROZ (Baluchi Folk Violin)
The Suroz is a bowed string instrument with a long neck, similar to a fiddle or sarangi and played vertically. It is considered the national instrument of the Balochistan.

The tanbur is a fretted string. The tanbur measures 80 cm in length and 16 cm in width. The resonator is pear-shaped and made of either a single piece or multiple carvels of mulberry wood. The neck is made of walnut wood and has fourteen frets, arranged in a semi-tempered chromatic scale.

The Sorna is an ancient woodwind instrument. A small amount of air is forced under pressure through a small metal tube called the staple which serves to hold the reed and match it to the bore. This requires the player to make sure, as in oboe playing, that one also empties the lungs of stale air when taking a new breath. Sorna is used as a main instrument during wedding ceremonies and also funeral ceremonies.

A Dohol is a large cylindrical drum with two skin heads. It is generally struck on one side with a wooden stick bowed at the end, and with a large thin stick on the other side, though it is also played by the bare hands. Dohol is almost always accompanied by Sorna.

The art of playing double flute is traditional to Baluch and can be seen in many parts. The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Flutes are the earliest known musical instruments. A flute produces sound when a stream of air directed across a hole in the instrument creates a vibration of air at the hole. The air stream across this hole creates a Bernoulli, or siphon. In balucoh music a single or double flutes are used and commonly played with “NEY”.

It is a very ancient instrument, with depictions of “NEY” players appearing in wall paintings in the Egyptian pyramids. This indicates that the Ney has been played continuously for 4,500–5,000 years, making it one of the oldest musical instruments still in use. It is a forerunner of the modern flute. The Ney consists of a piece of hollow cane or reed with five or six finger holes and one thumb hole. Modern NEY may be made of metal or plastic tubing instead. The pitch of the Ney varies depending on the region and the finger arrangement

The Tar body is a double-bowl shape carved from mulberry wood, with a thin membrane of stretched lamb-skin covering the top. The long and narrow neck has a flat fingerboard running level to the membrane and ends in an elaborate pegbox with six wooden tuning pegs of different dimensions, adding to the decorative effect.The melodies performed on tar were considered useful for headache, insomnia and melancholy, as well as for eliminating nervous and muscle spasms.

Saz is a long-necked lutes used in Ottoman classical music.


Thursday, September 22, 2011

SUGARCANE JUICE (National drink of Pakistan)

Sugarcane juice is the national drink of Pakistan. Sugar cane juice is called “Roh” in Pakistan and very popular drink in the summer months.  It is a refreshing drink in the hot Pakistani climate. It is available from mid March to the last of October.

Sugarcane juice made of sugarcane. It is much flavorsome and appears to be delightful. Sugar cane juice is the juice extracted from pressed sugarcane. The juice is extracted from the cane by pressing it through iron rollers. It is consumed as a beverage worldwide, and especially in regions where sugarcane is commercially grown. People usually like this drink in the summer months.

Sugar cane juice is a very refreshing summer drink. It is found abundantly in most cities of Pakistan .It is sold fresh by roadside vendors only Most of the vendors do prepare fresh juice quickly on demand, as the juice begins turning black very quickly due to oxidation. Sugar cane juice is usually served with lemon or black salt, ginger, mint and ice. It is sold in glasses with or without ice.

Pakistan is an agricultural country and grows outstanding amount of sugarcane. It has the bigger sugar industry as well. Thus sugarcane juice is quite well-liked and is obtainable throughout the year.

Sugarcane juice is nutritious and refreshing. It contains about 15% natural sugar and is rich in organic salts and vitamins. This juice has many medicinal properties. It strengthens the stomach, kidneys, heart, eyes and brain The juice is beneficial in fevers. The intake of sugarcane juice supplies the body with necessary protein and other food elements.

Sugarcane juice is a fattening food and is an effective remedy for thinness. Immediate weight is gained by its regular use.


Saturday, September 17, 2011

MANGO (National Fruit Of Pakistan)

Mango is National fruit of Pakistan. Its scientific name is Mangifera Indica. Mangifera indica is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. It is the largest fruit-tree in the world. Its height is usually one-hundred feet and an average circumference of twelve to fourteen ft. Mangifera indica is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed worldwide.

 Pakistan produces lot of varieties of mangoes. In Pakistan the mango fruit is mainly grown in Sindh and southern Punjab provinces.  But mangoes are also cultivated in Balochistan Khyber-Pakhtun khwa provinces.Mirpur Khas and Multan are the main cities where are huge mango gardens. Other important mango growing areas in the country  are Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Naushahroferoz, Khairpur (Mir's), Rahim Yar Khan, Bhawalpur, Mu:afargarh, Sheikhupura.Mango production in Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vehari, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Sargodha etc is also significant.

Mangoes have various Varieties. All vaieties are different in colors and sizes and each with a distinct flavor and taste.The most popular and the most important varieties of Pakistan are Sindhri, Chaunsa, Dasehri, Langra, Sonaro, Anwar Katole, Anwar Retol, Saroli. Fajri, Malda, Gulab Khns, Totapari. Saharni, Beganpali, Collestor, Fazli, Neelam, Pairi, Pndam and Sensation etc. Sindhuri" variety is known for its uniqueness, taste and flavor and is most well-liked through out the world.

Mango is one of the most popular fruit.Mango fruit shape is oval long, size large, skin color lemon yellow when ripe, pulp color yellowish, texture fine and firm fibreless, stone medium sized, flavor pleasantly aromatic and taste sweet. It is nutritionally rich with distinctive zest, taste and fragrance. Due to popularity Mango fruit is called “The king of the fruits. Mangoes are delicious tropical seasonal fruits therefore it is also called “super fruits”.

Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached East Asia between the 4th and 5th centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa. In the 15th century was cultivated in Philippines. In the 16th century cultivation started in Brazil and later to West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth. Mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates. The mango tree is long-lived and still fruit after 300 years. The species of mango was described for science by Linnaeus in 1753.

Mango trees grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The leaves are evergreen, alternate, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad. The leaves are orange-pink when they are young. They rapidly change to a dark glossy red, then dark green as mature. The flowers are produced 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long. Each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long.

Each fruit measures 5 to 15 cm in length and about 4 to 10 cm in width, and has typical “mango” shape, or sometimes oval or round. Its weight ranges from 150 gm to around 750 gm. Outer skin is smooth and is green in un-ripe mangoes but turns into golden yellow, bright yellow or orange-red when ripen depending on the cultivar.


Fresh mango fruit season begins in the month of May. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen. The ripe fruit varies in size and color. The mango is a fleshy stone fruit. The husk is enveloped with a single large kidney-shaped seed. The seed contains the plant embryo. Mango seed may either have a single embryo or sometimes poly embryonic. Usually fruits grow at the end of a long, string like stem with sometimes more than one fruit to a stem.

The mango is generally sweet. Flavor is pleasant and rich, and tastes sweet with mild tartness some having a soft, pulpy texture, while the flesh of others is firmer, or may have a fibrous texture mangoes come with various sizes and colors.

Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide.Mango is the not only the national fruit of Pakistan but also national fruit of India and Philippines.

Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. The mango is most­ly eaten fresh as a dessert. It is also processed into preserves, juices, squash, jams, jellies, nectars as well as crisp mango chips, which are eaten as snacks. Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh. But on the other hand they are consumed in many other culinary purposes. Mangoes are used in preserves like dried and powdered. Sour and unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, pickles, and side dishes. Some people eat them raw.

Mango has lot of health benefits. Mangoes contain sugar, an important source of vitamin A, and contain vitamins B and C. Small amounts of protein, iron, calcium and phosphorus are also present. Latest research studies declare that mango fruit prevents from colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers. Mango fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin.

Fresh mango is a very rich source of potassium. It is also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C, Vitamin Vitamin A, K and vitamin-E. It also contains Folates, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Riboflavin and Thiamin. Pyridoxine Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen free radicals.

Mango contains lot of minerals like Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese and Zinc Copper is a co-factor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase Copper is also required for the production of red blood cells.

Mango peels are also rich in phytonutrients. Such as the pigment antioxidants like carotenoids, Carotene, Lutein-zeaxanthin, Lycopene, Crypto-xanthin and polyphenols.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Description of Pakistani banknotes

Description of Pakistani banknotes

Pakistani Banknotes are of value 5, 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 rupees. The banknotes vary in size and color, with larger denominations being longer than smaller ones. All contain multiple colours. However, each denomination does have one colour which predominates. All banknotes feature a watermark for security purposes. On the larger denomination notes, the watermark is a picture of Jinnah, while on smaller notes, it is a crescent and star. Different types of security threads are also present in each banknote.

All banknotes feature a portrait of Muhammad Ali Jinnah on the obverse along with writing in Urdu. The reverses of the banknotes vary in design and have English text.

Detail of designs on banknotes mention below:

Obverse design:
All banknotes are mark with the portrait of Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Reverse design:

5 rupee note:
Dimensions: 115 x 65 mm
Main Colour: Greenish Grey
Description: Gwadar port (Mega project Balochistan–Pakistan)
Gwadar port

Detail information
Gwadar Port is a developing warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar in Balochistan province of Pakistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and approximately 75 km (47 mi) east of Pakistan's border with Iran.

10 rupee note:

Dimensions: 115 × 65 mm
Main Colour: : Green
Description: Bab ul Khyber entrance to the Khyber Pass, Khyber Agency, FATA

Bab ul Khyber

Detail information
The Khyber Pass at altitude 1,070 m or 3,510 ft is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The summit of the Khyber Pass is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal and it cuts through the northeastern part of the Safed Koh mountains which themselves are a far southeastern extension of the Hindu Kush range.

20 rupee note:
Dimensions: 123 × 65 mm
Main Colour: Orange Green
Description: Mohenjo-daro in Larkana District


Detail information
Moenjodaro’s Archaeological Ruins are located in the District Larkana, province of Sindh (Pakistan). Moen-Jo- Daro is located in on the right bank of the Indus River at a distance of about 27 km from Larkana, 107 km from Sukkur and 400 Km from Karachi. This archeological site is 5000 years old. The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's first great urban civilizations

50 rupee note:
Dimensions: 131 x 65 m.m
Main Colour: Purple
Description: K2, 2nd highest mountain of the world in Pakistan

K-2(2nd highest moutain of the world)

Detail information
K2 is the second-highest mountain of the world. It is at the elevation of 8,611 metres (28,251 ft). K2 is part of the Karakoram Range, and is located in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan.


100 rupee note:
Dimensions: 139 × 65 mm
Main Colour: Red
Description: Quaid-e-Azam Residency in Ziarat

Quaid-e-Azam Residency ( Ziarat)

Detail information
Quaid-e-Azam Residency is located in Ziarat, Balochistan, Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah spent the last days of his life in this Residency. It is the most famous landmark of City. The residency was constructed in 1892. The whole building is actually a wooden structure beautifully designed and has great architectural importance. It was originally meant to be a sanatorium, and it was converted into the summer residence of the Agent of the Governor General. It has now been declared a national monument

500 rupee note:
Dimensions: 147 × 65 mm
Main Colour: Rich Deep Green

Description: Badshahi Masjid in Lahore

Badshai Mosque (Lahore)

Detail information
The Badshahi Mosque is located in Lahore, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world. It was built by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in in 1673. Epitomizing the beauty, passion and grandeur of the Mughal era, it is Lahore's most famous landmark

1000 rupee note:
Dimensions: 155 × 65 mm

Main Colour: Dark blue
Description: Islamia College in Peshawar

Islamia College Peshawar

Detail information
Islamia College is an educational institution located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber-Pukhtoonkhwa province of Pakistan. It was founded in October 1913 by Nawab Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and Sir George Roos-Keppel. The college educates its students in arts, humanities and modern sciences. It was a constituent college of the University of Peshawar but in the year 2008 it was given the status of University

5000 rupee note:
Dimensions: 163 × 65 mm

Main Colour: Mustard
Description: Faisal Mosque in Islamabad

Faisal Mosque (Islamabad)

Detail information

Faisal Mosque is conceived as the National Mosque of Pakistan. The Faisal Mosque is located in the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. The Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and one of the largest mosques in the world. Faisal Mosque is fourth largest mosque of the world.It has a covered area of 5,000 m2 (54,000 sq ft. Each of the Mosque's four minarets are 80 m (260 ft) high and measure 10 x 10 m in circumference. The minarets are the tallest minarets in South Asia.

Tuesday, May 31, 2011



Lassi is popular dairy beverage of Pakistan. Lassi is originally from Punjab but is served widely in all parts of Pakistan. Its is very easy and quick to make. Lassi is every day drink and very refreshing. It is a perfect drink that boosts energy. Lassi is a natural yogurt, rich probiotic drink. Lassi is of great importance in diet and has a great nutritional value. It contains fat, protein, lactose, ash, calcium, phosphorus.

Main ingredient of Lassi is yogurt. Yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Freshly made yogurt is filled with countless numbers of beneficial bacteria that help digestion and kill harmful viruses. Yogurt is digested in about one hour as compared to the three hours it can take to digest milk.   This makes the yogurt even more light and digestible and helps in intestinal comfort after eating a meal 

Lassi is a versatile drink which allows to experiment with different flavors. Only the yogurt, sugar, water and ice are the basic ingredients that remain the same. There are many types of lassi that are flavored with sugar, rosewater, mango, strawberry or other fruits and have become immensely popular. Lassi is served chilled.